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原标题:E-cigs continue to spark debate over health risks/benefits


October 10, 2018 by Amy Norton, Healthday Reporter

艾米·诺顿(Amy Norton) 2018-10-10

(HealthDay)—With sales of electronic cigarettes skyrocketing, Americans remain divided on whether the devices are a boon or a threat to public health.


That's the main finding of a new HealthDay/Harris Poll that surveyed over 2,000 adults on their e-cigarette views.


Vaping has long been promoted as a way to help smokers kick the habit—offering them a route to get nicotine without the carcinogens in tobacco smoke.


But e-cigarettes aren't harmless, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other health authorities. There's particular concern about young people vaping—in part, because nicotine can harm brain development, which continues until about age 25.

但美国疾控中间(CDC)和其他安康威望机构认为电子烟并不是100%安然。 他们特别关怀蒸汽电子烟对青年人的影响,由于尼古丁会对大年夜脑发育形成不良影响,而大年夜脑完全发育大年夜概在25岁阁下。

In the poll, most adults did have misgivings about e-cigarettes: 85 percent said they were worried that the long-term health effects of the devices are unknown; and 83 percent were at least "somewhat" concerned about teenagers using e-cigarettes.

在这项平易近调中,大年夜部分红年人对电子烟确切心存顾忌。 85%的人称电子烟对安康的经久影响还不得而知;另有83%表示了对青少年应用电子烟的担心。

In fact, 43 percent of adults felt that e-cigarettes are actually more dangerous than traditional cigarettes.


On the flip side, about as many people (41 percent) viewed e-cigarettes as "healthier" than traditional cigarettes. And 42 percent rated them as an "excellent way" to quit.

反过去讲,约有41%的人认为电子烟比传统卷烟更安然安康。 42%的人乃至将它评为戒断烟瘾的“最好方法”。

It all adds up to differing views, and possibly confusion, about e-cigarettes and their health effects.


There are, in fact, many unknowns.


Unfortunately, at this time we have no scientific evidence on the long-term health effects of e-cigarettes, especially given the unknown effects of the aerosols and flavorings in e-cigarette liquids, said Dr. Thanh-Huyen Vu, a research assistant professor at Northwestern University in Chicago.

芝加哥西北大年夜学研究助理传授于青玄(Thanh-Huyen Vu)博士称:“很遗憾,我们还未控制到迷信的证据以验证电子烟对安康的经久影响,特别是烟油中气雾和喷鼻料对安康的影响。”

However, researchers know plenty about nicotine.


The drug "is well known to be addictive and toxic, and to have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and on health in general," Vu said.


And that's enough to raise concerns about teenagers' e-cigarette use, she added.


In addition, Vu said, studies have found that teenagers and young adults who use e-cigarettes are more likely than non-users to take up smoking.


And what about adults who use e-cigarettes in place of traditional ones?


The devices do allow people to avoid the chemicals they would inhale from burning tobacco, Vu noted.


It's been speculated that using them may be associated with better health outcomes, compared to traditional cigarette smoking, she said.


But again, Vu pointed out, there's the nicotine and its own health effects.


E-cigarettes come in different forms, with some emulating traditional cigarettes or pipes. One highly popular brand, called Juul, is shaped like a USB flash drive, and reportedly accounts for one-third of e-cigarette sales in the United States.

电子烟外形各别,有些似传统喷鼻烟,有些似烟斗;个中 Juul是最受迎接的一个牌子,外形类似USB,据报导它的销量占美国电子烟市场的三分之一。

Last week, the CDC reported that Juul sales shot up 641 percent between 2016 and 2017. Researchers called the trend worrying because the devices have a particularly high nicotine content and are popular with young people.


No teenager should be vaping, said Gregory Conley, president of the American Vaping Association—referring to a common term for e-cigarette use.

美国蒸汽烟协会(American Vaping Association)会长格雷戈里·康利(Gregory Conley)认为青少年就不该该应用蒸汽电子烟。

However, Conley disputed the notion that e-cigarettes are driving kids to smoke. As researchers from the University of Buffalo recently argued, teen smoking has continued to decline at the same time e-cigarette use has risen.

但是,康利其实不认为电子烟和青少年儿童吸烟有必定接洽。 比来,布法罗分校的研究人员辩称电子烟的引入反而使青少年烟平易近数量降低了。

Conley questioned the poll finding that 43 percent of people think e-cigarettes are more dangerous than traditional cigarettes. He said past surveys have found less fear around the devices.

同时,康利也对“43%的人认为电子烟比传统卷烟更风险”这一平易近调结论持质疑立场。 他说之前的一切查询拜访都指向电子烟伤害小。

But if people do think vaping is worse than smoking, Conley blamed misleading messages from certain researchers and media stories.


As long as vaping is helping smokers quit, it will bring public health benefits, he said.


Conley pointed to research evidence of that: Last year, a study at Georgetown University estimated that up to 6.6 million smokers would live "substantially longer" if they replaced their traditional cigarettes with e-cigarettes.


And a 2016 report from the Royal College of Physicians concluded that e-cigarettes—when used by smokers aiming to quit—are "likely" to benefit public health.

英国皇家外科医学会(Royal College of Physicians)2016年的一份申报指出假设那些决计戒断烟瘾的烟平易近应用电子烟,则很能够给公共安康带来巨大年夜的效益。

Still, Vu said that based on studies so far, it's unclear how effective the devices really are in helping smokers ultimately quit. "E-cigarette use is still new, so it will take time to prove," she added.

然后,于博士说基于今朝的研究,电子烟对戒断烟瘾的功效还不明白。 “电子烟还是新兴事物,须要时间去验证它的经久效益。”

This HealthDay/Harris Poll was conducted online within the United States between Sept. 25-27 2018, among 2,008 U.S. adults (aged 18 and over). This online survey is not based on a probability sample and therefore no estimate of theoretical sampling error can be calculated.

这项平易近调于2018年9月25至27号采取在线查询拜访的情势停止,参与查询拜访的人数达2008人(年纪大年夜于18岁)。 这项在线查询拜访并不是基于概率抽样,是以实际上不存在抽样误差。

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